Now-a-days, construction of concrete in coastal areas has long been facing the challenge of keeping the concrete as durable concrete structures in a saltwater environment. The main aim of this research is to find the effect of seawater curing of strength and  durability of different  concrete structures. Chloride concentration is initially higher in seawater. To design a concrete, which can withstand the attack of sea water, a coal combustion byproduct bottom ash, a fly-ash was used in this study to determine the strength and durability of the concrete against seawater effect. The chemical reaction of chlorides, sulphates and alaklies like sodium and potassium and in some cases dissolved carbon dioxide will affect the strength of concrete as well as durability vigorously. As a part of durability study, this paper describes the effect of sea water on compressive strength of concrete when used as mixing and concrete specimens were cast from four different mixes and plain water as well as sea water was used as mixing water in making the test specimens. This green concrete containing bottom ash for fine aggregate replacements (30%)  and again 30% bottom ash and 30% fly-ash is used in another mix, 30% fly-ash alone is used in another mix for fine aggregate replacements. These concrete specimens are cured in normal tap water as well as seawater. The specimens were tested cured and tested for compressive strength. Test results indicate that the loss of concrete strength in normal water curing and the seawater curing.


Green Concrete, Bottom Ash, Fly Ash, Acid Attack, Compressive Strength, Sea Water

Full Text:



Achintya, and Prasad, M. (2003). “Behaviour of concrete in freeze--thaw environment of sea water”, Journal of Institute of Engineers, India Civil Engineering Division, Vol.84, PP. 96-101.

ASTM C1202. (1993). “Electrical Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration”, Annual Book of American Society for Testing Materials Standards, Vol. 04.

ASTM C666. (1993). “Standard test method for resistance of concrete to rapid freezing and thawing”, Annual Book of American Society for Testing Materials Standards, West Conshohocken, PA.

Diao B, et al., (2011). “Effect of mixed-erosion freeze-thaw cycles and persistent loading on the behavior of reinforcement concrete beams”, Journal of Cold Region Engineering, 25(1), 37–52.

Djerbi A, et al., (2008). “Influence of traversing crack on chloride diffusion into concrete”, Cement Concrete Research, 38(6), 877–883.

Hale M, et al., (2009). “Examining the frost resistance of high performance concrete”, Journal of Construction Building Materials, 23 (2), 878-888.

Illston J.M., Domone, P.L.J. (2001). “Construction Materials”, Their nature and behavior. Taylor & Francis e-Library, New York, pp. 554.

Swaroop A.H.L, et al., (2013) - “Durability stuties on concrete with Fly-ash& Ggbs” International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications Vol.3, pp. 258-289.

Alvin Harison, et al., (2014) - “Effect of Fly-ash on Compressive Strength of Portland Pozzolona Cement Concrete” Journal of Academia and Industrial Research, Vol.2.

Aman Jatale, et al., (2013) - “Effects on Compressive Strength When Cement is Partially Replaced by Fly Ash” IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Vol. 5, pp. 34-43.

Arivazhagan K, et al. (2011) – “Effect of Coal Fly-ash on Agricultural Crops: Showcase project on the use of fly-ash in agriculture in and around Thermal Power Station Areas of National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd., India”, World of coal fly-ash (WOCA) Conference, May 9-12, in Denver CO USA).

Arunakanthi E, and H. Sudarsana Rao (2013) - “Effects of Sulphuric Acid in Mixing and Curing Water on Strength of High-Performance Metakaolin Concrete”, International Journal of Scientific Research,Vol.2, pp. 146-150.

Fareed Ahmed Menon, et al., (2010) -“Study of compressive strength of concrete with coal power plant Fly-ash as partial replacement of cement and Fine aggregate” Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering & Technology, Vol. 29. No.4.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2019 International Educational Applied Scientific Research Journal