Dr. James Tanoos


Prompted initially by the economic success of the North American Free Trade Agreement, trade cooperation around the world is on the rise, leading to a flurry of new Free Trade Agreements.  While economies in developed countries such as the US have achieved growth due to the lowering of trade barriersthat follow completed FTA’s, coinciding tensions have escalated from factions within the industrial sectors of the economywho claim that overall imports increasebut at the expense of overall domestic output and export growth.The Asia-Pacific region, particularlyChina, has concurrently seen unprecedented economic success with their own successfully negotiated FTA’s, driven by the access to new markets which allow forthe export of their manufactured goods.  As a result of the economic success of this phenomenon, races to pursue new FTA’s have emerged, along with resistance from a variety of international actors.  For example, the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership, a FTA linking the US to East Asian countriesspecifically not including China, has escalated tensions from labor groups within the US who claim that FTA’s hurt US manufacturing growth.  This study assesses trends in trade with recently completed US FTA partners in order to determine the merits of domestic industrial factions in their claims that FTA’s hurt overall US exports.

Full Text:



Abo, T. (2010). Competing Chinese and Foreign Firms in Swelling Chinese Economy: Competition strategies for Japanese, Western and Asian firms.Berlin, Germany: LIT Verlag Publishing.

Akyüz, Y. (2003). Developing Countries and World Trade: Performance and prospects. Penang, Malaysia: Palgrave Macmillan Press.

Allee, T. &Scalera, J. (Spring, 2012). The Divergent Effects of Joining International Organizations: Trade gains and the rigors of WTO accession. International Organization, 66(2), 243-276.

Americans and the World. (2004). Public Opinion on International Affairs:NAFTA, CAFTA, and FTAA. Retrieved on February 12, 2011 from World Public

The American Journal of International Law. (April, 2004). Adoption of Central American Free Trade Agreement, 98(2), 350-352.

Amiti, M., Itskhoki, O., &Konings, J. (July, 2014). Importers, Exporters, and Exchange Rate Disconnect. The American Economic Review,104(7), 1942-197.

Antons, C. & Hilty, R. (2014). Intellectual Property and Free Trade Agreements in the Asia-Pacific Region. New York, NY: Springer Publishing.

Autor, D., Dorn D., & Hanson, G. (October, 2013). The China Syndrome: Local labor market effects of import competition in the United States. The American Economic Review, 103(6), 2121-2168.

Bacon, D. (2004). The Children of NAFTA: Labor wards on the US/Mexico border. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.

Baldwin, R. (March, 2009). Book Review of Termites in the Trading System: How preferential agreements undermine free trade by, Jagdish Bhagwati. Journal of Economic Literature, 47(1), 180-181.

Barlett, D. & Steele, J. (2013). The Betrayal of the American Dream. New York, NY: PublicAffairs Publishing.

Bell, K. (2009). An Election to Remember: Obama, Clinton, and the never ending primary. Los Gatos, CA: Smashwords Publishing.

Brandt, L., Van Biesebroeck, J., Wang L., & Zhang, Y. (October, 2012). WTO Accession and Performance of Chinese Manufacturing Firms: Industrial organization and international trade and regional economies. Centre for Economic Policy Research. Discussion Paper No. 9166.

Cameron, B.& Tomlin, W. (2002). The Making of NAFTA: How the deal was done.New York, NY: Cornell University Press.

Chinese Ministry of Commerce. (2015). China Free Trade Agreement Network. Retrieved from

Cook, D. (Spring, 2015).Looking Beyond Accession: Challenges to Implementing the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement in China. Journal of Public Procurement, 15(1), 93-116.

Cooper, W. (Feb 26, 2014). Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.

Ervine, K. & Fridel, G.(2015). Beyond Free Trade: Alternative Approaches to Trade, Politics and Power.London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan Publishing.

Fora, A. (2014). Annals of the University of Oradea. Economic Science Series, 23(1), 86-92.

Glick, L. (2010). Understanding the North American Free Trade Agreement: Legal and business consequences of NAFTA, 3rd edition. Alphen aan den Rijn, Netherlands: Kluwer Law International.

Granville, K.(May 11, 2015).The Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade Deal Explained. New York Times.

Harney, A. (2009). The China Price: The true cost of Chinese competitive advantage. New York, NY: The Penguin Press.

Hassanien, M. (2010). United States Bilateral Free Trade Agreements: Consistencies or conflicts with norms in the Middle East? (Global Trade Law Series). ZE Alphen aan den Rijn, Netherlands: Kluwer Law International Publishing.

Hoadley, S. (Summer, 2007). Southeast Asian Cross-Regional FTAs: Origins, Motives and Aims. Pacific Affairs, 80(2),East Asian Cross-Regionalism, 303-325.

Hoadley, S. & Yang, J. (2007). China’s Regional and Cross-Regional FTA Overtures: In Search for Comprehensive National Power. Pacific Affairs, 80(2), 327-48.

Holley, W., Jennings, W., & ‎Wolters, R. (2011). The Labor Relations Process. Cincinnati OH: South-Western College Publishing.

Hu, J. & Vanhullebusch, M. (2014). Regional Cooperation and Free Trade Agreements in Asia.Boston, Mass: Martinus Nijhoff Publishing.

Huerta-Goldman, J. (February, 2010). Mexico in the WTO and NAFTA in a Nutshell: Litigating international trade disputes. Journal of World Trade, 44(1), 173-202.

Hufbauer, G. & Schott, J. (2005). NAFTA Revisited. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.

Irwin, D. (2015). Free Trade Under Fire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kellenberg, D. & Levinson. A. (Spring/Summer 2014). Waste of Effort? International environmental agreements. Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, 1(1/2), 135-169.

Kimeldorf, H. (December, 2013). Worker Replacement Costs and Unionization: Origins of the U.S. Labor Movement. Sociological Review, 78(6), 1033-1062.

Krugman, P.(1997). Pop Internationalism. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press.

Liu, J. (August, 2014). Accession Protocols: Legal status in the WTO legal system. Journal of World Trade, 48(4), 751-771.

Mountjoy, A. (2007). Industrialization and Underdeveloped Countries Paperback. Rutgers University, New Jersey: Aldine Transaction Publishing.

Neumayer, E. (October 2013). Strategic Delaying and Concessions Extraction in Accession Negotiations to the World Trade Organization: An analysis of working party membership. World Trade Review, 12(4), 669-692.

Office of the United States Trade Representative. (2015). Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). Unlocking Opportunity for Americans through trade with the Asia Pacific.Retrieved from

Pomante, M. &‎Schraufnagel, S. (2014 ). Historical Dictionary of the Barack Obama Administration. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

PREM Advisory Service. (2015). Chapter 5. Economic Growth in the 1990s: Learning from a Decade of Reform. The World Bank Group.

Public Citizen. (February 23, 2015). Eyes on Trade. Retrieved from

Rein, S. (2012). The End of Cheap China: Economic and cultural trends that will disrupt the world. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing.

Schlesinger, J., Obe, M., & Magnier, M. (April 17, 2015). TPP: Momentum on Trade Deal Bolsters U.S., Japan Efforts to Counter China. Wall St. Journal.

Scott, R.E.(November 17, 2003).The High Price of FreeTrade: NAFTA’s failure has cost the United States jobs across the nation. Washington D.C. Economic Policy Institute, Briefing Paper #147, 1-13.

Serfati, C. (Spring, 2015). The Transatlantic Bloc of States and the Political Economy of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). Work Organisation, Labour & Globalisation, 9(1), 7-37.

Singh, R. (2012). Barack Obama's Post-American Foreign Policy: The limits of engagement. New Delhhi, India: Bloomsbury Academic.

Steers, R. & ‎Nardon, L. (2014). Managing in the Global Economy.New York, NY: Routledge Publishing.

Tarr, D. (2014). Congress and the Nation 2009-2012: Politics and policy in the 111th and 112th Congresses. Washington, DC: CQ Press.

Tosevska, K.(2010). Regional vs. Multilateral, Bilateral vs. Regional Choices in the International Trade for the Republic of Macedonia. Conference Proceedings: International conference of the faculty of economics. Sarajevo (ICES), 1-11.

United Nations. (2015). United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved from

United States Census Bureau. (2015). U.S. Trade in Goods by Country. Retrieved from

United States Department of Commerce. (2015). International Trade Administration. Concluded Free Trade Agreements. Retrieved from

Wang, C. (2015). Obama's Challenge to China: The Pivot to Asia U.S.-China Policy Foundation, USA. Ashgate Publishing.

Wu, X., Liu, X., & Du, J. (September, 2007). Local Firm’s Knowledge Acquisition in the Global Manufacturing Network: Evidence from Chinese samples. International Journal of Innovation & Technology Management, 4(3), 267-281.

Zhang, Y., Zhang, G., & Zhang, H.G. (March/April, 2007). Chinese Economy, 40(2), 5-35.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2018 International Educational Applied Scientific Research Journal